Pradžia / Didysis Žaidimas

Messiah’s Concept: From the very beginning to the Postmodern Approach

Islamic Messianism (Mahdism) here is treated as a complex theological-philosophical phenomenon pervading almost all the world's major religions, although the first three Abrahamic ones – Judaism, Christianity and Islam – are the main to talk about Messiah. To understand the genesis and development of Messianism, and we need to look at the etymology of word "Messiah".

Mindaugas Peleckis
2016 m. Rugpjūčio 08 d., 15:38
Skaityta: 131 k.
Messiah’s Concept: From the very beginning to the Postmodern Approach

We will begin this analysis of the fundamental concepts of exploration of meaning. In the Old Testament, or rather, his version of the Greek Septuagint (dated to the III-II century BC), The Hebrew word "anointed one" (Mašiah) is used 39 times in (the Greek is translated as Christ, Χριστός). In the New Testament (John), the word "Messiah" (the Greek word the Latin transliteration Messias) is mentioned only twice. The word "Messiah" is known not only as the Hebrew Mašiah but as Mešiha Syriac, Arabic Al-Masih. Mašiah first mentioned in the Torah, the book of Exodus (30: 22-25), which deals with the anointing oil. Initially, it had nothing to do with eschatologic schemes. For example, the first Persian emperor Kuruš (Cyrus) The Great (600 / 576-530) was considered to be "God's anointed", although not a Jew. In the messianistic Jewish tradition and eschatology Christ - is already God's appointed leader, the future king of Israel, descended from David according to unite the tribes of Israel, and bring peace to the world. In Judaism the Messiah is not equal to God or the Son of God, as Christianity, or the 12th Imam, as Islam..

Islamic tradition comes to Mary (Marijam) son Jesus (Isa), who was the promised prophet, or Masih (Yasu 'al-Masih, Isa al-Masih) - the "anointed one", the same Jewish Mašiah referred to in the Torah. Masih - common in Iran, India, Pakistan's Christian name. No less frequent among Iranian Muslims in the name of Mahdi (Mehdi).

Assyrologist Professor Simo Parpola argues that the oldest version of the sefirot originates from Assyrian theology and mysticism. He says he found parallels between the Assyrian gods and the Jewish God's characteristics. The Assyrians used the sexagesimal number system, and their gods attribute number. Assyrian god Asura, even the Babylonian Marduk, S. Parpola identifies with the Jewish Kabbalists’ Ein Sof. In other words, according to this theory, the Assyrian-Babylonian Marduk Asura-are-to-God-manifestation in the world (Ein Sof, SE-en lo tiklah, No-end), all creation divine beginning. True, the Ein Sof concept was developed by one of the most famous Kabbalists - the mystic Isaac the Blind (Rabbi Yitzhak saggy Nehor, about 1160 to 1235), a pupil of Azriel ben Menahem (Azriel of Gerona, cur. Barcelona, about 1160 to 1238). Ein Sof concept reminds Neoplatonic approach to God, who does not have any attributes. But here where we can see the concept of the Messiah? Ein Sof emanates ten sefirots - the Kabbalistic Tree of Life energies of divinity aspects. Specifically, there is the eleventh da'ath ("knowledge"), the path is called forbidden, it is - not a separate sefirot, and all ten in one place. Full Ein Sof (Keter, Khokhmah, Binah, Chesed, gevurah, Tifferet, Netzach, Hod, Yesod, Malchut) can equate the demonstration of the Messiah on Earth.

Messianism as waiting, expectation ontological concept is closely related to meontology or non-existence theory (gr. Μή -Me - no, ὄν - on - "being"). Meontology does not examine phenomena that exist, and those phenomena which are beyond the limits of ontology. In modern Western philosophy there are only few theorertics of meontology (Martin Heidegger, Jacques Derrida, Emmanuel Levinas), it’s roots are in the East.

For meontology it is important an apophatic theology (gr. Ἀπόφασις, ἀποφάναι), also known as via negativa (Lat. 'Denial of the way"). It is - with catafatic theology contrasting Episteme, trying to describe the denial of God (God is not bad, is not created, there is no defined space and time, etc.). Apofatic theology can see not only Islam, but also in the other two Abrahamic religions. Moses in a burning bush was not expressed God's name (יהוה). In the New Testament St. Paul speaks of "the unknown God" (Acts 17:23).

Cappadocia parents believed in God but did not believe that it exists as anything else, that is, God transcends above existence. In this way, God's essence is totally unknown to us, and we know it only through its manifestations. This is in apophatic medieval Christian texts ("Ignorance of the cloud," St. John of the Cross "Dark night of the soul"), and Jewish mystical Kabbalistic sefirot schemes and Mahdism’s Islamic doctrine. All Abrahamic religions have traditions of denial of the essence - God, which Judaism and Islam, is the creator of the universe, manifestation. Key among these manifestations - the Messiah. Martin Kavka, discussing Judaic messianism and messianic expectation (expectation), speaks about the still-not-existence of the world-that-come (together with the Messiah) - olam ha-ba.

In Jewish eschatology, the term "Messiah" (ha Melekh Mašiah - the "anointed king") appeared in describing future Jewish King from the Davidic Messiah's coming of age. Now the Jews are arguing with each other, but when the Messiah will come, and what will be the age of the Messiah. For example, the Talmud says about the coming Messiah and peace and freedom in which he will bring to the Jews and all humanity. It is widely described in the Talmud falling treatise Sanhedrin (98a, etc.). All of Jewish history - the Messiah is waiting history, various comparison sites scripture and signs that can predict the time that will Mašiah, searching. Talmud of the Messiah is a lot of stories. For example, one conversation with the prophet Elijah vision of Christ, when asked, when will come, says "Today." About the Messiah as well as the number of reads and Isaiah. Especially important for us in this line: "One nation shall not lift up sword against another, neither shall they learn war any more." (Isaiah 2: 3-4)

The image of the Messiah was mainly influenced by the story of Moses, who not only brought the Jewish people from Egyptian bondage, but also gave them the Torah. In Talmud and Midrash Moses is called the first Deliverer, and Messiah - the last Deliverer. However, although the story of Moses - messianic ideas of the beginning of the Messiah and strengthened the image of King David. Over time, there eschatological messianic idea, encouraged by Isaiah. There was the emergence of numerous Jewish messianic movements, sects. Unlike the Christian world outlook, the Messiah of the Jews - only a man of God, the kingdom of consolidation instrument for special services. Moshe Maimonides in Christ looked at all without the eschatological and mystical shell: This was supposed to be just a political leader of the liberation of the Jewish people.

From the sixteenth century. Kabbalistic theories influenced began to form a new approach to the Messiah: the Jewish people - to elect a atskurti world contributes to the perfection of the Torah. The most famous of the multiplier was Shabtai Tzvi (1626-1676), who declared himself to be a long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He founded a movement when the theologian Nathan of Gaza (1643-1680) announced that Shabtai Tzvi is the Messiah. It is true that just a year later - 1666's - "Messiah" had converted to Islam. However, Shabtai Tzvi’s followers then diminished. Turkish Sultan Mehmed IV in 1666, 16th of September gave to Shabtai Tzvi name of Mahmed Efendi. It is believed that Shabtai Tzvi belonged to the Sufi Bektashi brotherhood, which influenced the "Messiah" Kabbala training. After his conversion many Jews have become Muslims (turk. Dönmeh "convert"), he called himself ma'aminim (Hebrew. "Believers").

However, Shabtai Tzvi’s messianism gave an interesting impetus: the passive waiting the Messiah became active (started efforts to bring the forces of the human capital of the kingdom of the Messiah coming). The most famous Jewish people, by placing themselves prophets were Judas of Galilee (about 4 m. Pr. Kr.); Simon, the son of Joseph (about 4 m. Pr. Kr.), A former slave of Herod the Great; Atrongas (about 4-2 m. Pr. Kr.), Along with his four brothers in revolt against the Romans, proclaimed the Messiah, put to death; Jesus Christ, Jesus of Nazareth (about 4 m in BC. BC. - About 30 m.) - The most famous Messiah, all the world believes about 2 billion people; Teudas (44-46 m.); Menachem ben Juda (Judah son of Galilee); Simon Bar Kochba (about 135 m. Killed by the Romans during the Bar Kochba rebellion). After the Bar Kochba revolt messiahs age, it seemed, was over. However, hopes that the Messiah will come again, people are still held.

Eschatological expectation (expectation) is characteristic not only of the ancient Jews, but also in Essen and Karaites. "The law of God Qumran studied not only the Pentateuch, but the book of the prophets, because they have credo of the same value. They not only an attempt to justify the expectation of the Messiah, but prophetic books assigned a primary role in discovering the latent issues in the law of Moses. [...] In Essen and Karaites Scripture and follows the concept of the most significant features common to them - messianism and eschatological expectation. The word "maskilim, characterized in Essen texts, often occurs in the Karaite texts. Wied explains that it illuminates called teachers and missionaries who are entrusted with certain responsibilities and messianic tasked to redeem the sins of the world. [...] Karaite authors Damascus Country "in a broad sense as well as the time of the Messiah land, which is destined to become a gathering place for exiles, returning to the Holy Land points. [...] Damascus is localized as the first phase of the messianic redemption. This redemption, according to the Qumran writings, he would be eschatological two personalities - the messianic king and priest Messiah - work. "

Eschatological expectation is called by Iranian Muslims entezar (arab. Intizar). The hidden Imam Al Mahdi Al Hud, Imam Az Zaman - Time Imam - was born in 869, 29th of July in Samara (now Iraq). Shiites believe that it is he who is the Mahdi, the savior of mankind, who will appear together with Jesus (Isa) and save the world from war and injustice. Mahdi will rule for five years - the so called Imamat. True, only Shiites believe Mahdi and Hassan Askari's son is the same person, Sunni and Shiite schools of others do not believe it.

In this way, the Mahdi will take place a manifestation of the struggle with evil and the return of the original pure state of the world. According to the eschatological doctrine raj'a, will come to life in a number of past saints and their persecutors - the battle will take place between them. The Savior not only reinforce Islam, but also all the other religions that they are pure, they were at the beginning of humble God. Mahdi also will reveal the secret to mankind Scripture.

In the final battle against the forces of evil Qa'em is not the only one. It will be accompanied by some of the saints, Jesus, the Prophet Muhammad, various imams (Ali and Hussein in most cases). This war will be managed by the Mahdi Army, which will be three types of soldiers:

Angels, especially 313 angels that had accompanied the Prophet to fight the inhabitants of Mecca Badr;

Tragically heavenly creature fear (ro'b), which they'll travel Mahdi army ahead and scare the enemies;

313 Qa'em's companions, forming a circle of relatives (Jai).

Savior of happiness, then the Mahdi will prepare the Last World Court and the final resurrection.

Messianism's Transformation of Theology to Philosophy

As we can see, other than Sunni Islam, where the Mahdi, although recognized, but it was never especially believed the Messiah Shia Islam is the main protagonist of eschatological events and mahdism - well-developed dogma. It is also very important to realize that mahdizmo doctrine, which is essentially a theological phenomenon found its place in the most famous Persian philosophers' writings (especially mahdism was developed by Mulla Sadra).

Orthodox Jews follow Moshe Maimonides' thirteen principles of faith "(Sanhedrin, Chapter 10, Helek). The twelfth publishes "Jewish Messiah" Mašiah coming:

Ani Maam B'emunah Sh'leimah B'viyat Hamashiach. V'af al pi sheyitmahmehah im until achake Zeh lo b'chol Yom sheyavo.

I believe with all your heart the coming of the Messiah. And even if he lingered to come, I still await his coming every day.

The Jews believe that by doing mitzvot ritual, they improve the world (tikkun olam) and thus accelerate the coming of the Messiah. This provision appeared in the early Talmudic period. As stated at that time he lived Rabbi Yochanan (Yohanan bar Nafcha, died about 279), If every Jew, two weeks without stopping fulfill obligations Sabbath, the Jewish nation's sins are redeemed (Talmud, Shabbat, 118).

Zohar indicated a deadline by which they must prove to be the Messiah. It is 6000 years since the creation of the world, as it imagines a Jew, or 2240 years. The seventh millennium, as the coming of the messianic age is discussed a lot of prominent Jewish philosophers of Catalonia Kabbalist Ramban (Nahmanid, 1194-1270), the Portuguese philosopher Isaac ben Abrabanel (1437 to 1508), the Spanish philosopher, astronomer, poet Abenezra (Rabbi Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra, 1089-1164), eleventh century. Spanish philosopher Rabbeinu Bachija (Bahy ben Joseph ibn Paquda), Vilna Gaon (Gra, or Elijah ben Zalman Sloman, 1720-1797), MM Schneersonas, Italian Kabbalist Moshe Chaim Luzzatto (RaMCHal, 1707-1746), New Yorker philosopher Aryeh Kaplan (1934 -1983).

Vilnius Gaon is said that the last war - Milchemet Gog uMagog - will last only 12 minutes, because people will have a very powerful weapon.

Based on the above Kabbalists computing system, whereby one of the world creation date equivalent to 1000 years, this 12-minute divine earthly consists of 43.8 years. Just as Moshe Maimonides formulated the coming of the Messiah as one of the fundamental principles of Judaism, Persian philosopher Mulla Sadra - the true Mahdi doctrinology’s blacksmith - made the difficult theological doctrine of transcendental philosophy (Hikmat) system. Mulla Sadra (Sadra ad-Din Muhammad of Shiraz, or Sadr, 1571-1641) - Persian Shiite philosopher, theologian and Alim, became the seventeenth century. held in the Iranian cultural renaissance herald.

According to Professor Oliver Leaman, Mulla Sadra - the most important and influential Muslim philosopher in the world over the past 400 years. Sadr created the Theosophical transcendent (al hikmah al muta'liyah) Episteme, based on the most famous Islamic schools of philosophy: peripatetism (mašša'i), avicenism, Suhravardi iliuminacionism (išraq), Sufism of Ibn Arabi, Twelver Ash'arites Shiite theology. Mulla Sadra has set an existential question, whatever the nature of reality, the leapfrogging over four centuries and being with them next to Martin Heidegger.

Arabic language the word "eschatology" is' ilm al-ma'ad (knowledge / education about the return / resurrection). Grammatically Ma'ad indicates the return location. As a theological and philosophical terms, it symbolizes return to God (ie, the reality of the existence of the principle of) the process or the second resurrection of the world. Ma'ad as eschatological concept, representing a return / resurrection, divided into ma'ad Ruhan ("spiritual return") and ma'ad džusmani (restoration of the body). The first component - this is the spirit returning to the recovered bodies.

David Cook recalls the apocalyptic Shi'ite city - not Jerusalem as Sunni and Al Kufa. When Qa'em will rise, it will enter into Kufa. This is the current city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, 10 kilometers to the northeast of Najaf on the Euphrates river. Along with Samara, Kerbela, Qazimija, Al Najaf and Kufa is one of the most important Shiite cities.

The term "charged" for Muslim Messiah and Mahdi in Arabic means "the leader, the leader (usually given the direction of prayer - as well as the community). Shiites believe that the Prophet Muhammad himself appointed his closest disciple and son in law Ali first imam, he became a chain of twelve Imams beginning. Shiites (partisans of Ali) to the imams looking very respectfully. To emphasize that the term "charged" Sunni (they account for about 90 per cent. Of the world Muslims) and Shia world-mean slightly different things. Sunni taken leads the prayer, said on Friday (Muslim feast) sermon. Sunni imam calls and Islamic theology, law, hadyth experts. Shia "Imam" is related to the other major Shia Islam philosophy and theology ismah concept - "a father figure, which does not sin." This classical philosophy and logic can easily deny the doctrine has a mystical meaning - it refers to God's chosen twelve Imams, which can be likened to the twelve Apostles and Christians who, like the prophets are sacred and infallible. Shiite ismah concept came from Abu Bakr. The words of the Prophet Muhammad after the death of "God chose Muhammad out of all the people and protected him from the moral weakness". Shiites Twelvers and Shiites Ismailites believe that God has chosen as the ideal imams people who have led humanity to teach her. In the twelve imams ismah status to Prophet Muhammad and his daughter Fatima Zahra (605-632). All together, they are called "fourteen infallibles (ma'sumun), the most spiritually clean”.

So, summarizing these provisions, we can say that, while waiting for the Messiah (Mahdi) the coming of the Muslims (in this case - Iranian Shiites Twelvers) temporary transfers its power to the country's theocratic government. The (temporary) transfer of powers - Imamat (imamah) with judėjiškąjį equivalent rabbinate (Rabbonut horoshi) and the Catholic equivalent of Papa (gr. Πάππας, "daddy").

While the Christian eschatology does not constitute the objective of the study, but we can not fail to mention the apocalyptic prophecy, speaking about the end of the Pope's authority. We are talking about Peter II, the first papal Peter (Jesus' disciples) antipode. Annuario Pontificio says that the current Pope Benedict XVI is the 265 th (in fact, according to the management - 267 th, as Benedict IX reigned three times between 1032 m. And 1048.). In Northern Ireland Armagh (Ard Mhacha) comes archbishop and saint Malachi (Ua Mael Máedóc Morgair, Maelmhaedhoc Ó Morgair, 1094-1148) has performed several miracles, among them - 112-s recent popes list, seen in a vision. Malachi saint canonized in 1199. "Prophecy of the Popes" short phrases to describe the last 112 (counting from the time of Malachi) Popes, of which the last, who will come after Benedict XVI called Petrus Romanus. He will destroy Rome and the Roman Catholic church:

In psecutione Extrema S.R.E. sedebit Petrus Romanus,
qui pascet Õues in multis tribulationibus:
quibus Transact ciuitas septicollis diruetur,
& Iudex tremẽdus iudicabit the people suum.

Comparing Abrahamic religious concept of the Messiah with other religions also find parallels. Zoroastrianism’s Messiah - Saošjant, "the one who benefits," For the final renewal of the world, Frašokereti. Bundahišn (GBD 30.1ff) speaks about the" third age "(the first - the creation of age, the second - the mixing, the third - the separation of) the end of the occurrence of a huge battle between good (yazatas) and evil (Daevy) forces. Happiness, like other religions eschatologic schemes goodness. Righteous (Asavan), resurrected from the dead, caught in the river of warm milk, and the bad will be harmful to burn. Cosmic justice (asa) will triumph.
About the coming Messiah language and Buddhist literature, such as the Sanskrit language written in prophecy about Maitreya (Maitreyavyakarana): "[God's people and other creatures] will no longer have the assets, gold, silver, home, relatives, they will live a holy life under the guidance of Maitreya. In Sanskrit, the future Messiah (Buddha) called Maitreya, Pali language - Metteyya, Tibetan - Jampa. Maitreya will come when people on earth will forget the Teaching, Dharma.

Sadr from all Islamic philosophers focused on eschatology and resurrection (ma'ad), and talking about the man and the cosmos. The fourth treatise "Asfar" Paper-based Ibn Arabi insights, Mulla Sadra Islamic philosophy carries out the most comprehensive human soul (Nafs) study - from its birth to the final meeting with God, including the death of phenomenology. Fourth, "Asfar" the book can be compared to the Egyptian and the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Sadr Sirat Bridge and is interpreted as the imagination of the world (mundus imaginalis) share. All events that are associated with death, the Last Judgement, etc., Mentioned in the Koran and hadysuose, going on in this world, which in itself is only a gap (Barzakh) between the physical and angelic worlds. This world, according to Sadr formed from a plurality of intermediate state (barazikh): from the highest (al-al-a'la barazikh) to the lowest (al barazikh al asfal). So Barzakh is like the Islamic equivalent of the Christian purgatory.

Sadr metaphysical philosophy difficult, she talks about transsubstancinį soul movement, a spiritual (Ruhan), physical (jismani) and Paracelsus terminology through "astral" (al-Latif al džism) bodies. After the death of these bodies has its own you are nowhere persists and is "envelop" of their actions, which are done in this world (which is reminiscent of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainist theory of karma).

We should not forget the huge contribution to the philosophical Jewish messianism research and analysis. Jewish philosophers who lived in the Islamic world, has created a much more mature than the idea that time Christian philosophers. Some Christian philosophers and theologians have suffered huge direct impact on Islamic philosophy and repeated the essential ideas, and Jews, have received a good momentum, went a step further and developed his philosophical Episteme. According to Oliver Leaman, however, Jewish and Muslim thinkers often settle upon some philosophical issues, as both Judaism and Islam - strictly monotheistic religion.

Jewish philosophy common to divide into three periods: Hellenistic (II c. BC. BC. - I c.), Medieval and modern (since the eighteenth century.). According to Arthur Hyman, productive and interesting - medieval Jewish philosophy period, which lasted for six centuries.

The medieval Jewish philosophy of Judaism and its practices have been expressed in philosophical concepts. Highlights - choice of Israel, Moses' prophecy uniqueness of the Torah and its eternity, Christ and life after death. X century. It began in medieval Jewish philosophy distinctly evolved in North Africa, Spain and Egypt. To the Jewish philosophers were familiar with the Arabic language and Islamic philosophy. Many Jewish philosophers' writings were written in Arabic. At that time the Jewish philosophers can be divided into mutakalimus (theologians), Neoplatonic and Aristotelian philosophy Aristotelian critics.

The most prominent Jewish theologian and philosopher, the first in the Middle Ages - Sadija Gaon (882-942), who had his rabbinical academy in Sura, near Baghdad. Sadija said that people have free will, because it is responsible for their behavior. In order to explain the suffering of the righteous, Sadija developed a love of suffering "doctrine, under which the suffering of this world will be rewarded in the world to come.

Western esotericism as movement began only in XIXth century and since then, having some structural changes, remained almost the same as it was in the beginning, only changed form from old fashioned European Renaissaince-thinkers through neo-Buddhism, Roerichism, post-Roerichism, New Age movement, theosophy (Blavatsky, Besant etc.) and other movements and beliefs that like to call themselves holistic. One of big “prophecies” failed in 2000, another in 2012, and still there are ones who wait for Messiah not even knowing about Imam Mahdi (A.S.). People with Western thinking pattern usually try to combine various “new” religions which only copy/paste a part of Buddhism (Maitreya as Messiah), Hinduism (Kali Yuga theory), German mythology (Ragnarok as Endtimes of old Scandinavians). This combination is so eclectic that people forgot about the real Scriptures, Abrahamic ones, especially Qur’an.

There’s one more interesting pattern that comes not from West, but from Russia. Russian apocalypticism is as strong as Western/Germanic and it has its own distinctions.

Printed in